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Why are women living longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only some answers. We know there are biological, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور psychological and environmental variables that play an integral role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries as compared to the present.
We will now examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was tiny, it has increased substantially over time.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.1 year ago