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Why do women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today, and why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and we have only some solutions. We know there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors that play an integral role in women's longevity more than males, we aren't sure the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the precise amount, we can say that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men and not previously, has to do with the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for تحاميل مهبلية ( longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for تحاميل مهبلية women was previously smaller.
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however it increased dramatically over the course of the last century.

You can check if the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.IMG_5730.jpg