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Why do women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-19)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today, علامات الحمل بولد and why is this difference growing in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide partial answers. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables that play an integral role in women who live longer than men, we don't know how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn't because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

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In wealthy countries, علامات الحمل بولد the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
We will now examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small however it increased dramatically over the course of the last century.

If you select the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points are applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.