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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Warren Trost (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? Why is this difference growing over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over males, we aren't sure the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today and not previously, is to be due to the fact that several important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, افضل شامبو وبلسم ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This graph shows that although there is a women's advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries that it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small, but it grew substantially during the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to verify that these two points apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.