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Why women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing over time? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors that play an integral role in the longevity of women over men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men today however not as previously, has to do with the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of just half a year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries than it is today.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand تحاميل مهبلية out.

zBZ87kTDXcO_7jVJjKUwcwAAAA.jpgThere is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very modest but it increased substantially during the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country' on the chart, you can verify that these two points also apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.