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Why do women live longer than men?

Nathaniel Rudd (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? There isn't much evidence and we're only able to provide limited answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure how strong the relative contribution of each factor is.

It is known that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that the advantage of women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan, the difference is only half a year.

In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was extremely small however, it has grown significantly with time.

You can confirm that these points are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.