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Why are women living longer than men?

Lona Talbott (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren't sure how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the amount, we can say that at least a portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present, but not in the past, has to do with the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, افضل شامبو وبلسم like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, افضل شامبو وبلسم especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
We will now examine how the advantage of women in longevity has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

\u0632\u064a\u0648\u062a \u062a\u0637\u0648\u064a\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631 : \u0623\u0641\u0636\u0644 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u064a\u0648\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0623\u0633\u0627\u0633\u064a\u0629 \u0644\u0646\u0645\u0648 \u0627\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631 \u2013 \u0645\u062c\u0644\u0629 \u0639\u0631\u0648\u0633There is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you will be able to verify that these two points also apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.