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Why women live longer than men?

Abbey Neumayer (2022-04-19)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason is this difference growing over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, صبغ الشعر بالاسود we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that a large portion of the reason women live so much longer than men in the present but not previously, has to do with the fact that certain fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, صبغ الشعر بالاسود; https://glorynote.com/, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

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In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in longevity has changed over time. The next chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

random-140906045428-phpapp01-thumbnail-3The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small but it has risen significantly with time.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, confirm that the two points are also applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.