Комментарии читателей

Why are women living longer than men?

Lona Talbott (2022-04-19)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present, and why does this benefit increase in the past? There isn't much evidence and we only have some solutions. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women living longer than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for اوضاع الجماع men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.

__S.17__
__S.19__
The advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes as compared to the present.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US from 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in America have longer lives than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small, but it grew substantially during the last century.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.