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Why do women live longer than men?

Shella Sorrell (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason is this difference growing over time? There isn't much evidence and we're only able to provide partial solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, علامات الحمل بولد regardless of their weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal line of parity - it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries that it is today.
We will now examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and علامات الحمل بولد female life expectancies at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be quite small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.