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Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least a portion of the reason why women live longer than men do today however not as in the past, is to have to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.

In the richer countries, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and ابر التخسيس female life expectancies at birth in the US in the years 1790 until 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very modest but it increased substantially during the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, ابر التخسيس you will be able to verify that these two points are also applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.