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Why are women living longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? And how has this advantage gotten larger over time? There isn't much evidence and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. We know there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women who live longer than men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

We know that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for تحاميل مهبلية men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage throughout the world, تحاميل مهبلية the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has grown significantly over time.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.