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Why do women live longer than men?

Aurora Salter (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today, and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables which all play a part in women living longer than men, we do not know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men in the present but not in the past, has to have to do with the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, اوضاع الجماع [] ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brother.

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: اوضاع الجماع Although the female advantage in life expectancy was tiny, it has increased substantially with time.

You can confirm that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.