Комментарии читателей

Why are women living longer than men?

Aurora Salter (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown in the past? We only have partial evidence and تحاميل مهبلية the evidence is not sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, تحاميل مهبلية biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure what the contribution of each one of these factors is.

Independently of the exact number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men however not as previously, is to be due to the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
We will now examine how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, you are able to determine if these two points are also applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.