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Why do women live longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? And how has this advantage gotten larger in the past? The evidence is limited and we only have partial solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; However, افضل شامبو وبلسم we're not sure how strong the relative contribution of each factor is.

It is known that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For افضل شامبو وبلسم example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in rich countries that it is today.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small however it increased dramatically in the past century.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to check that these two points also apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.