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Why are women living longer than men?

Ismael Saulsbury (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? And ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور why is this difference growing in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide partial solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, but we don't know exactly what the contribution of each factor is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries are often significant. In Russia, women live for ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

The advantage for women in terms of life expectancy was lower in developed countries as compared to the present.
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the time of birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy was once tiny but it has risen significantly over time.

If you select the option "Change country' on the chart, you are able to check that these two points also apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.