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Why do women live longer than men?

Vilma Santora (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why the advantage has grown over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an informed conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; but we don't know exactly what the contribution to each of these variables is.

Independently of the exact amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live longer than men in the present but not in the past, is to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and اوضاع الجماع relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

3 years agoEverywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for women exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's look at how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two distinct points stand اوضاع الجماع out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.