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Why do women live longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-19)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present and how is this difference growing in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an informed conclusion. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological and environmental variables which all play a part in women living longer than males, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور we aren't sure how much each one contributes.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

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In countries with high incomes, the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend: Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small however, it has increased significantly in the past century.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, determine if these two points apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.