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Why women live longer than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women have a longer life span than men? And why does this benefit increase over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological and environmental variables that play an integral role in women who live longer than men, افضل شامبو وبلسم we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However this isn't because of certain biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line - which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, افضل شامبو وبلسم although there is a women's advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Men and women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was quite small but it has risen significantly in the past.

You can check if the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.