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Why women live longer than men?

Mellissa Rodman (2022-04-19)

\u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u0645\u0647\u0628\u0644\u064a\u0629 \u062c\u0627\u064a\u0646\u0648-\u0645\u064a\u0643\u0648\u0632\u0627\u0644 200\u0645\u0644\u062c\u0645 7 \u062d\u0628\u0627\u062a - \u0635\u064a\u062f\u0644\u064a\u0627\u062a \u062a\u062f\u0627\u0648\u064a\u0646\u0627Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason is this difference growing as time passes? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental variables which play a significant role in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure how much each one contributes.

It is known that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However this isn't because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan, the difference is less than half a calendar year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart plots male and زيوت تطويل الشعر female life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be tiny however, it has grown significantly over time.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, you can verify that these two points also apply to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.