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Why are women living longer than men?

Connor Matthew (2022-04-19)

maxresdefault.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? And how is this difference growing over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. We know there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors that all play a role in women who live longer than men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present, but not in the past, زيوت تطويل الشعر has to have to do with the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in developed countries that it is today.
Let's look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has grown significantly with time.

It is possible to verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.