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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and we're only able to provide partial solutions. We know there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors that all play a role in women living longer than males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men in the present and not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, علامات الحمل بولد even though women enjoy an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries could be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is only half a year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: علامات الحمل بولد While the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was tiny however, it has grown significantly in the past.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, you are able to check that these two points are also applicable to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.