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Why women live longer than men?

Joeann Primm (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and افضل كريم للشعر ( how has this advantage increased over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological and environmental variables that play an integral role in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear how much each one contributes.

2 years agoWe have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that while the female advantage is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand افضل كريم للشعر out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be quite small but it increased substantially during the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, you will be able to check that these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.