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Why are women living longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men and زيوت تطويل الشعر how does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and we have only limited solutions. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological and environmental variables that all play a role in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today but not in the past, is to relate to the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For زيوت تطويل الشعر -, example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller
We will now examine how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small It has significantly increased over time.

Using the option 'Change country by country' in the chart, you can verify that these two points also apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.