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Why women live longer than men?

Velva Bottoms (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? And why does this benefit increase in the past? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only some answers. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors which all play a part in women living longer than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present however not as in the past, is to have to do with the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, العاب زوجية there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can be expected to live for العاب زوجية longer than her older brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small but it increased substantially during the last century.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, you can check that these two points are also applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.