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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and we have only partial answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we're not sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

We know that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. However, this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

The chart above shows that although the female advantage is present everywhere, افضل شامبو وبلسم cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a calendar year.

In countries with high incomes, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: افضل شامبو وبلسم While the female advantage in life expectancy was once extremely small but it has risen significantly over time.

By selecting 'Change Country' on the chart, you can confirm that the two points also apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.