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Why are women living longer than men?

Lenard Cuevas (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men, and why has this advantage increased over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, اضيق وضعية للجماع however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

12154172616_5ea34e4ca6.jpgIn spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men today however not as in the past, has to relate to the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - this means that in all countries baby girls can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that the advantage of women exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

In wealthy countries, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's look at the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and اضيق وضعية للجماع female life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was very small, it has increased substantially with time.

You can check if the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.