Комментарии читателей

Why do women live longer than men?

Bernie Brien (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase as time passes? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not strong enough to make an informed conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors which play a significant role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, علامات الحمل بولد like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for علامات الحمل بولد men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

lipedemiaandperiodontitisarticlejournaloIt is interesting to note that while the female advantage exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

In countries with high incomes, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The next chart plots male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was tiny It has significantly increased over time.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.