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Why women live longer than men?

Iva Unger (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present, and why is this difference growing in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, but we don't know exactly how significant the impact of each of these factors is.

It is known that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This graph shows that although there is a women's advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

In wealthy countries, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two points stand ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small however, it has increased significantly in the past century.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور and