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Why are women living longer than men?

Niklas Brauer (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why does this benefit increase as time passes? The evidence is limited and we're left with only limited answers. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors that play an integral role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know what percentage each factor زيوت تطويل الشعر plays in.

121-3.jpgIn spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men however not as previously, is to be due to the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for زيوت تطويل الشعر survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries than it is now.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was very small, it has increased substantially over time.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.