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Why women live longer than men?

Rico Ruckman (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And صبغ الشعر بالاسود how does this benefit increase over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological and environmental factors that all play a role in women who live longer than men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men in the present, but not previously, is to do with the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her older brother.

The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

In countries with high incomes, the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The next chart shows the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small however it increased dramatically over the last century.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you are able to determine if these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.