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Why do women live longer than men?

Lashay Gullett (2022-04-19)

tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001b-11011501514Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is sketchy and we're left with only incomplete solutions. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear how much each one contributes.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men today however not as in the past, is to be due to the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small but it has risen significantly over time.

You can verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور France, and Sweden.