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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? And how has this advantage gotten larger as time passes? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how much the influence to each of these variables is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men do today, but not previously, is to be due to the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is only half a year.

In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity was not as great.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

If you select the option "Change country' on the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.