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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Yvette Bock (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today and اضيق وضعية للجماع why has this advantage increased in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we do not know how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men today, but not in the past, has to be due to the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries are often significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in the richer countries that it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies at the time of birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend: Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small however, it has increased significantly during the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country' on the chart, you can check that these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001b-11011501514