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Why do women live longer than men?

Abigail Governor (2022-04-19)

%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A7%D8%A8-%D8%B2%D9Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women have a longer life span than men? And how has this advantage gotten larger as time passes? The evidence is sketchy and اوضاع الجماع we only have some answers. We know there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables that play an integral role in women who live longer than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn't due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in every country can expect to live longer than her brothers.

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries that it is today.
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart shows the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, اوضاع الجماع the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small, it has increased substantially over time.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.