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Why do women live longer than men?

Giuseppe Duke (2022-04-19)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today, and كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're left with only partial solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know what the contribution of each of these factors is.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men in the present and not previously, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام has to relate to the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

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In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
We will now examine the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in America have longer lives than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was tiny but it has risen significantly over time.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.