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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Lee Christenson (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today, and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men in the present and not previously, is to relate to the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for افضل كريم للشعر men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

شامبو-سيباميد2-363x500.jpgThis chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

If you select the option "Change country from the chart, confirm that the two points apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.