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Why are women living longer than men?

Klaudia Grullon (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present and تحاميل مهبلية why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an unambiguous conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how much the influence to each of these variables is.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries as compared to the present.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in America have longer lives than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small but it increased substantially in the past century.

8 years agoYou can check if these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and تحاميل مهبلية Sweden.