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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Brandy Ackerman (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men and why has this advantage increased over time? The evidence is limited and we only have some solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we do not know how significant the impact of each factor تحاميل مهبلية is.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men today however not as previously, has to do with the fact that several fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

The chart above shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

In the richer countries, the women's advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in America have longer lives than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once quite small but it has risen significantly in the past.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you can verify that these two points apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.