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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Shawnee Kiley (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today and why is this difference growing in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we're only able to provide some solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men and not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that several fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points are applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.