Комментарии читателей

Why women live longer than men?

Shawnee Kiley (2022-04-19)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men and why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and زيوت تطويل الشعر [glorynote.com] we have only some solutions. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we aren't sure how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this isn't because of certain non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries are often significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

__S.17__
__S.19__
In countries with high incomes, the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially over the last century.

If you select the option "Change country in the chart, you can confirm that the two points also apply to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.