Комментарии читателей

Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Dianne Mettler (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and why does this benefit increase over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors which play a significant role in women living longer than males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men do today and not in the past, has to be due to the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For تحاميل مهبلية -, example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

This chart illustrates that, although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is only half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is now.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small however, it has grown significantly over time.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and تحاميل مهبلية Sweden.