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Why do women live longer than men?

Teena Valenti (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present, and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological and environmental factors that all play a role in women who live longer than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the amount, علامات الحمل بولد we can say that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men do today however not as previously, has to be due to the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from any country can expect to live longer than her brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in countries with higher incomes than it is now.
Let's examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand علامات الحمل بولد out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be quite small but it has risen significantly with time.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to verify that these two points apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.lipedemiaandperiodontitisarticlejournalo