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Why do women live longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور we have only limited answers. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors which all play a part in women living longer than men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in America have longer lives than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.