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Why do women live longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present, and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how much the influence of each factor is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men do today however not as in the past, has to be due to the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was extremely small however, it has grown significantly over time.

It is possible to verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.