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Why are women living longer than men?

Ferne Sisk (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each factor is.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men do today however not as in the past, is to relate to the fact that certain fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, اوضاع الجماع like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists across all countries, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in developed countries than it is now.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart shows male and اوضاع الجماع female life expectancies when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest however it increased dramatically over the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, you are able to verify that these two points apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.