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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-19)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today and how is this difference growing in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

We know that women live longer than men, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام regardless of their weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women exists across all countries, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

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In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest but it increased substantially over the last century.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, verify that these two points apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.