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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown as time passes? The evidence is sketchy and we have only incomplete answers. We know there are behavioral, biological as well as environmental factors that all play a role in women living longer than men, we do not know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men in the present, but not previously, has to be due to the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US live much, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام female advantage in life expectancy used be very small however, it has increased significantly in the past century.

You can confirm that these principles are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.