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Why women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-19)


47101472804_202f3d135c.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men and why has this advantage increased in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We know there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women's longevity more than males, it isn't clear how much each factor كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام contributes.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men today but not in the past, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام is to have to do with the fact that certain fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that although the female advantage is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

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The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries as compared to the present.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders in America have longer lives than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.