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Why are women living longer than men?

Kathrin Gainey (2022-04-19)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing in the past? There isn't much evidence and we only have incomplete solutions. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know what the contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men today, but not in the past, has to have to do with the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women exists across all countries, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.

The advantage women had in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries than it is now.
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام women in the United States live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.